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Κυριακή, 7 Ιουλίου 2019

Debian 10 "buster" released

The Debian Project                      
        https://www.debian.org/
Debian 10 "buster" released                             press@debian.org
July 6th, 2019                 https://www.debian.org/News/2019/20190706
------------------------------------------------------------------------


After 25 months of development the Debian project is proud to present
its new stable version 10 (code name "buster"), which will be supported
for the next 5 years thanks to the combined work of the Debian Security
team [1] and of the Debian Long Term Support [2] team.

    1: https://security-team.debian.org/
    2: https://wiki.debian.org/LTS

Debian 10 "buster" ships with several desktop applications and
environments. Amongst others it now includes the desktop environments:

  * Cinnamon 3.8,
  * GNOME 3.30,
  * KDE Plasma 5.14,
  * LXDE 0.99.2,
  * LXQt 0.14,
  * MATE 1.20,
  * Xfce 4.12.

In this release, GNOME defaults to using the Wayland display server
instead of Xorg. Wayland has a simpler and more modern design, which has
advantages for security. However, the Xorg display server is still
installed by default and the default display manager allows users to
choose Xorg as the display server for their next session.

Thanks to the Reproducible Builds project, over 91% of the source
packages included in Debian 10 will build bit-for-bit identical binary
packages. This is an important verification feature which protects users
against malicious attempts to tamper with compilers and build networks.
Future Debian releases will include tools and metadata so that end-users
can validate the provenance of packages within the archive.

For those in security-sensitive environments AppArmor, a mandatory
access control framework for restricting programs' capabilities, is
installed and enabled by default. Furthermore, all methods provided by
APT (except cdrom, gpgv, and rsh) can optionally make use of "seccomp-
BPF" sandboxing. The https method for APT is included in the apt package
and does not need to be installed separately.

Network filtering is based on the nftables framework by default in
Debian 10 "buster". Starting with iptables v1.8.2 the binary package
includes iptables-nft and iptables-legacy, two variants of the iptables
command line interface. The nftables-based variant uses the nf_tables
Linux kernel subsystem. The "alternatives" system can be used to choose
between the variants.

The UEFI ("Unified Extensible Firmware Interface") support first
introduced in Debian 7 (code name "wheezy") continues to be greatly
improved in Debian 10 "buster". Secure Boot support is included in this
release for amd64, i386 and arm64 architectures and should work out of
the box on most Secure Boot-enabled machines. This means users should no
longer need to disable Secure Boot support in the firmware
configuration.

The cups and cups-filters packages are installed by default in Debian 10
"buster", giving users everything that is needed to take advantage of
driverless printing. Network print queues and IPP printers will be
automatically set up and managed by cups-browsed and the use of non-free
vendor printing drivers and plugins can be dispensed with.

Debian 10 "buster" includes numerous updated software packages (over 62%
of all packages in the previous release), such as:

  * Apache 2.4.38
  * BIND DNS Server 9.11
  * Chromium 73.0
  * Emacs 26.1
  * Firefox 60.7 (in the firefox-esr package)
  * GIMP 2.10.8
  * GNU Compiler Collection 7.4 and 8.3
  * GnuPG 2.2
  * Golang 1.11
  * Inkscape 0.92.4
  * LibreOffice 6.1
  * Linux 4.19 series
  * MariaDB 10.3
  * OpenJDK 11
  * Perl 5.28
  * PHP 7.3
  * PostgreSQL 11
  * Python 3 3.7.2
  * Ruby 2.5.1
  * Rustc 1.34
  * Samba 4.9
  * systemd 241
  * Thunderbird 60.7.2
  * Vim 8.1
  * more than 59,000 other ready-to-use software packages, built from
nearly 29,000 source packages.

With this broad selection of packages and its traditional wide
architecture support, Debian once again stays true to its goal of being
the universal operating system. It is suitable for many different use
cases: from desktop systems to netbooks; from development servers to
cluster systems; and for database, web and storage servers. At the same
time, additional quality assurance efforts like automatic installation
and upgrade tests for all packages in Debian's archive ensure that
"buster" fulfills the high expectations that users have of a stable
Debian release.

A total of ten architectures are supported: 64-bit PC / Intel EM64T /
x86-64 (amd64), 32-bit PC / Intel IA-32 (i386), 64-bit little-endian
Motorola/IBM PowerPC (ppc64el), 64-bit IBM S/390 (s390x), for ARM, armel
and armhf for older and more recent 32-bit hardware, plus arm64 for the
64-bit "AArch64" architecture, and for MIPS, mips (big-endian) and
mipsel (little-endian) architectures for 32-bit hardware and mips64el
architecture for 64-bit little-endian hardware.

If you simply want to try Debian 10 "buster" without installing it, you
can use one of the available live images [3] which load and run the
complete operating system in a read-only state via your computer's
memory.

    3: https://www.debian.org/CD/live/

These live images are provided for the amd64 and i386 architectures and
are available for DVDs, USB sticks, and netboot setups. The user can
choose among different desktop environments to try: Cinnamon, GNOME, KDE
Plasma, LXDE, MATE, Xfce and, new in buster, LXQt. Debian Live Buster
re-introduces the standard live image, so it is also possible to try a
base Debian system without any graphical user interface.

Should you enjoy the operating system you have the option of installing
from the live image onto your computer's hard disk. The live image
includes the Calamares independent installer as well as the standard
Debian Installer. More information is available in the release notes [4]
and the live install images [5] sections of the Debian website.

    4: https://www.debian.org/releases/buster/releasenotes
    5: https://www.debian.org/CD/live/

To install Debian 10 "buster" directly onto your computer's hard disk
you can choose from a variety of installation media such as Blu-ray
Disc, DVD, CD, USB stick, or via a network connection. Several desktop
environments — Cinnamon, GNOME, KDE Plasma Desktop and Applications,
LXDE, LXQt, MATE and Xfce — may be installed through those images. In
addition, "multi-architecture" CDs are available which support
installation from a choice of architectures from a single disc. Or you
can always create bootable USB installation media (see the Installation
Guide [6] for more details).

    6: https://www.debian.org/releases/buster/installmanual

For cloud users, Debian offers direct support for many of the best-known
cloud platforms. Official Debian images are easily selected through each
image marketplace. Debian also publishes pre-built OpenStack images [7]
for the amd64 and arm64 architectures, ready to download and use in
local cloud setups.

    7: https://cloud.debian.org/images/openstack/current/

Debian can now be installed in 76 languages, with most of them available
in both text-based and graphical user interfaces.

The installation images may be downloaded right now via bittorrent [8]
(the recommended method), jigdo [9], or HTTP [10]; see Debian on
CDs [11] for further information. "Buster" will soon be available on
physical DVD, CD-ROM, and Blu-ray Discs from numerous vendors [12] too.

    8: https://www.debian.org/CD/torrent-cd/
    9: https://www.debian.org/CD/jigdo-cd/#which
   10: https://www.debian.org/CD/http-ftp/
   11: https://www.debian.org/CD/
   12: https://www.debian.org/CD/vendors

Upgrades to Debian 10 from the previous release, Debian 9 (code name
"stretch") are automatically handled by the apt package management tool
for most configurations. As always, Debian systems may be upgraded
painlessly, in place, without any forced downtime, but it is strongly
recommended to read the release notes [13] as well as the installation
guide [14] for possible issues, and for detailed instructions on
installing and upgrading. The release notes will be further improved and
translated to additional languages in the weeks after the release.

   13: https://www.debian.org/releases/buster/releasenotes
   14: https://www.debian.org/releases/buster/installmanual


About Debian
------------

Debian is a free operating system, developed by thousands of volunteers
from all over the world who collaborate via the Internet. The Debian
project's key strengths are its volunteer base, its dedication to the
Debian Social Contract and Free Software, and its commitment to provide
the best operating system possible. This new release is another
important step in that direction.


Contact Information
-------------------

For further information, please visit the Debian web pages at
https://www.debian.org/ or send mail to <press@debian.org>.